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Chester Bowles

Chester Bowles


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Chester Bowles, tillsammans med William Benton, grundade Benton and Bowles Advertising Agency 1929. Även om den stora depressionen hade drabbats av mitten av 1930-talet var deras verksamhet ett företag på flera miljoner dollar, och han tjänade mer än 250 000 dollar per år 1941. som styrelseordförande. Även om han nekades på grund av ett öronproblem, tog han ett jobb med staten Connecticut i Wartime Rationing Administration.Med sin erfarenhet av ekonomi och administration blev han statsdirektör för Office of Price Administration och utsågs senare till chef för Federal Price Administration 1943 av president Franklin D. Roosevelt. Strax efter att han utnämndes till posten som statssekreterare 1961 av president John F. Kennedy, ersattes han av George Ball för hans förmodade läckage av motstånd mot invasionen av grisarna i vad som utgjorde en byråkratisk omläggning som blev känd som Thanksgiving Day Massacre. Han dog 1986 vid 85 års ålder efter att ha drabbats av en stroke i Essex, Connecticut, och ligger begravd på River View Cemetery.


Bowles historia, familjevapen och vapen

Namnet Bowles nådde engelska stränder för första gången med förfäderna till familjen Bowles när de migrerade efter normannernas erövring 1066. Familjen Bowles bodde i Lincolnshire. Namnet är dock en hänvisning till familjens tidigare bostad i Bouelles, nära Neufchatel, i Normandie.

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Bowles -familjens tidiga ursprung

Efternamnet Bowles hittades först i Lincolnshire där de bosatte sig efter den normanniska erövringen. De var ursprungligen från Bouelles, nära Neufchatel i Normandie där det listades under stavningarna Bowles eller Buelles. [1]

Vapensköld och efternamnspaket

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Bowles familjens tidiga historia

Denna webbsida visar bara ett litet utdrag av vår Bowles -forskning. Ytterligare 100 ord (7 rader med text) som täcker åren 1613, 1662, 1619, 1663, 1661, 1663, 1669, 1714, 1690, 1702, 1722 och 1637 ingår i ämnet Early Bowles History i alla våra PDF Extended History -produkter och tryckta produkter där så är möjligt.

Unisex tröja med huva

Bowles stavningsvarianter

Anglo-normanniska namn tenderar att präglas av ett enormt antal stavningsvariationer. Detta beror till stor del på att gammal- och mellanengelskan saknade några stavningsregler när normandisk franska introducerades på 1000 -talet. Språken i de engelska domstolarna vid den tiden var franska och latin. Dessa olika språk blandades ganska fritt i den utvecklande sociala miljön. Det sista elementet i den här blandningen är att medeltida skrivare stavade ord enligt deras ljud snarare än några bestämda regler, så ett namn stavades ofta på så många olika sätt som antalet dokument det förekom i. Namnet stavades Bowles, Bolles, Boles, Bowls, Boals och andra.

Tidiga anmärkningar från familjen Bowles (före 1700)

Enastående bland familjen vid denna tidpunkt var Edward Bowles (1613-1662), en engelsk presbyteriansk minister från Sutton, Bedfordshire Sir John Bolles, 1st Baronet of Scampton, Lincolnshire Sir Robert Bolles, 2nd Baronet (1619-1663), en engelsk politiker som satt i Underhuset från 1661 till 1663 Sir.
Ytterligare 47 ord (3 rader text) ingår under ämnet Early Bowles Notables i alla våra PDF Extended History -produkter och tryckta produkter där så är möjligt.

Migration av familjen Bowles till Irland

Några av Bowles -familjen flyttade till Irland, men detta ämne behandlas inte i detta utdrag.
Ytterligare 32 ord (2 rader text) om deras liv i Irland ingår i alla våra PDF Extended History -produkter och tryckta produkter där det är möjligt.

Bowles migration +

Några av de första nybyggarna av detta efternamn var:

Bowles Settlers i USA på 1600 -talet
  • John Bowles, som bosatte sig i New England 1630
  • Thomas Bowles, som bosatte sig i Virginia 1630
  • Geo Bowles, som landade i Virginia 1636 [2]
  • Edward Bowles, som anlände till Maryland 1650 [2]
  • Elizabeth Bowles, som anlände till Maryland 1650 [2]
  • . (Mer finns i alla våra PDF Extended History -produkter och tryckta produkter när det är möjligt.)
Bowles Settlers i USA på 1700 -talet
  • Anne Bowles, som anlände till Virginia 1704 [2]
  • Pallister Bowles, som landade i Virginia 1713 [2]
  • Isabella Bowles, som landade i Virginia 1714 [2]
  • James Bowles, som anlände till Maryland 1729 [2]
Bowles Settlers i USA på 1800 -talet
  • Fru H Bowles, som anlände till New York, NY 1810 [2]
  • W A Bowles, som landade i San Francisco, Kalifornien 1851 [2]

Bowles migration till Kanada +

Några av de första nybyggarna av detta efternamn var:

Bowles Settlers i Kanada på 1700 -talet
Bowles Settlers i Kanada på 1800 -talet
  • John Bowles, 2 år som emigrerade genom Grosse Isle Quarantine Station, Quebec ombord på fartyget & quotLotus & quot avgår 15 april 1847 från Liverpool, England, fartyget anlände den 24 juni 1847 men han dog ombord [3]

Bowles migration till Australien +

Emigrationen till Australien följde de första flottorna av dömda, handlare och tidiga nybyggare. Tidiga invandrare inkluderar:

Bowles Settlers i Australien på 1800 -talet
  • Thomas Bowles, engelsk dömd som dömdes i Gloucester, Gloucestershire, England i 7 år, transporterades ombord på & quotCaledonia & quot den 19 juni 1822 och anlände till Tasmanien (Van Diemens land) [4]
  • John Bowles, engelsk dömd som dömdes i Yarmouth, Norfolk, England för livet, transporterades ombord på & quotBlenheim & quot den 11 mars 1837 och anlände till Tasmanien (Van Diemens land) [5]
  • Thomas Bowles, brittisk domare som dömdes i Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, England i 7 år, transporterades ombord på & quotAsiatic & quot den 26 maj 1843 och anlände till Tasmanien (Van Diemens land) [6]
  • Charlotte Bowles, som anlände till Adelaide, Australien ombord på skeppet & quotRajah & quot 1849 [7]
  • Charlotte Bowles, som anlände till södra Australien 1849 ombord på skeppet & quotRajah & quot [7]
  • . (Mer finns i alla våra PDF Extended History -produkter och tryckta produkter när det är möjligt.)

Bowles migration till Nya Zeeland +

Emigrationen till Nya Zeeland följde i de europeiska upptäcktsresande fotspår, som kapten Cook (1769-70): först kom sälare, valfångare, missionärer och handlare. År 1838 hade det brittiska Nya Zeelandska företaget börjat köpa mark från maori -stammarna och sälja det till nybyggare, och efter Waitangi -fördraget 1840 gav sig många brittiska familjer ut på den jobbiga sexmånadersresan från Storbritannien till Aotearoa för att börja ett nytt liv. Tidiga invandrare inkluderar:


25 maj: Chester Bowles: Connecticut ’s Civil Rights-Era Governor

Chester Bliss Bowles var en av Connecticuts mest framgångsrika och ambitiösa politiker under 1900 -talet. Född i Massachusetts 1901 gick han privatskola i Connecticut och tog examen från Yale 1924. Efter college arbetade han som copywriter på en reklambyrå i New York City innan han grundade sitt eget annonsföretag som, efter år av framgång, tillät honom att bekvämt dra sig tillbaka från verksamheten vid 40 års ålder och vända uppmärksamheten mot politiken.

Chester Bowles med president John F. Kennedy, 1961.

Bowles ägnade över tre decennier av sitt liv åt public service. Efter att ha blivit avvisad från militärtjänst på grund av en öronskada, tjänstgjorde han istället under andra världskriget som ransoneringsadministratör i Connecticut och arbetade sig snabbt upp i ledet till statsdirektör för prisadministration. År 1943 valde president Franklin Delano Roosevelt Bowles att leda Federal Office of Price Administration — den första av flera högt uppsatta verkställande utnämningar som Bowles skulle hålla under de på varandra följande ordförandena i Roosevelt, Truman, Kennedy och Johnson.

År 1948 återvände Bowles till Connecticut för att kämpa för guvernör och tog fram en osannolik seger i den då kraftigt moderat republikanska staten. Som guvernör arbetade Bowles för att genomföra en ambitiös ekonomisk och social agenda med FDR ’s New Deal -program som modell, med blandad framgång. Av exekutiv fiat inrättade han Connecticut ’s första Civil Rights Commission, officiellt desegregerade Connecticut National Guard och var den första guvernören i statens historia som utsåg en kvinna och en afroamerikan till sin personliga militära personal. Bowles ’ lagförslag i New Deal-stil angående bostäder, välfärd och utbildningsreform avvisades emellertid av en solid republikansk lagstiftare, och Bowles förlorade sin omvalskampanj till en rival som effektivt målade honom som en extrem vänster. liberal.

Bowles tjänstgjorde som USA: s ambassadör i Indien 1951.

Efter att ha tappat sitt återvalsbud återvände de outtröttliga Bowles 1951 återigen till Washington för att tjänstgöra i ett antal administrativa, lagstiftande och diplomatiska poster under de kommande två decennierna. Bowles tjänstgjorde en kort tid som president John F. Kennedy ’s under utrikesminister, som en engångs kongressrepresentant från Connecticut ’s andra distrikt och som USA: s ambassadör i Indien (två gånger).

Den 25 maj 1986 dog Chester Bowles i sitt Essex -hem efter en lång kamp mot Parkinson ’s sjukdom. Idag är flera regeringsbyggnader, parker och vägar i hela Connecticut — inklusive majoriteten av väg 9, en av statens huvudgator och#8212 namngivna till hans ära.


Chester B. Bowles

Chester Bowles (klass 1924) föddes i Springfield, Massachusetts och gick Choate innan han åkte till Yale. År 1924, som senior, var han kapten för golflaget som vann interkollegiatmästerskapet, även om han inte var en av de fyra spelare vars poäng räknades mot vinsten. I den inledande matchen för den säsongen hade han varit ihop med sin lagkamrat, Dexter Cummings, individuell interkollegialmästare 1923, och de förlorade mot ett lag från Westchester Biltmore Country Club i Rye, New York. År 1923 hade Bowles förlorat sin match i Apawamis Invitational. Han spelade inte i den interkollegiala lagtävlingen i slutet av säsongen, men han tävlade i det individuella mästerskapet och förlorade i andra omgången. Varför valdes han till lagkapten? Det kan mycket väl vara så att kvaliteterna som gjorde Bowles framgångsrika inom reklam, politik och diplomati var tydliga redan då för hans väljare.

Bowles skrev senare att "som högskola, 1924, bestämde jag mig för att tillbringa mitt liv i regeringen" och observerade att han var en av få i klassen för vilken en offentlig karriär hade något intresse. Först åkte han till New York och fick ett jobb som $ 25 per vecka copywriter på en reklambyrå. Under den stora depressionen 1929 startade han ett eget reklamföretag med en annan Yale -examen, William Benton. Det var mycket framgångsrikt, men Bowles var inte nöjd med enbart monetära belöningar. Händelserna den 7 december 1941 gav honom den möjlighet han letat efter.

På grund av ett öronproblem avvisades Bowles när han försökte värva sig i marinen. Han accepterade en tjänst som chef för Office of Price Administration i Connecticut. År 1943 utsåg president Roosevelt honom till chef för Federal Price Administration. Han var direktör för ekonomisk stabilitet när han utan framgång kandiderade till guvernör i Connecticut 1946. Han blev guvernör 1948. Han utsågs till USA: s ambassadör i Indien 1951 och igen 1961. Mellan dessa tjänster tjänstgjorde han i representanthuset från Connecticuts andra distrikt. Bowles skrev sju böcker med sin filosofi om inrikes och utrikespolitik.


Chester Bowles papper

Chester Bowles Papers, bestående av 186 fot korrespondens, tal, skrifter, fotografier, muntliga historiaintervjuer och olika andra typer av material, registrerar Bowles långa karriär inom public service. Även om tidningarna innehåller några fotografier och memorabilia från Bowles barndom, högskoleår och från den tid då han förknippades med reklamfirman Benton och Bowles, finns det ingen korrespondens eller annan viktig dokumentation före 1942, när Bowles intog positionen som Connecticut State Tire Rationing Administrator. Efter det datumet belyser tidningarna Bowles olika roller som statlig och federal administratör, politiker, diplomat, publicist och som författare och konsult. Tidningarna kastar mycket ljus över ett brett spektrum av ämnen, inklusive amerikansk politik, ekonomisk politik, utrikespolitik, amerikansk utrikesbistånds- och utvecklingspolitik, Indien, USA: s förbindelser med Indien, Connecticut -politik och aktiviteter från amerikanska organisationer och individer inom området liberal politik, medborgerliga rättigheter och andra orsaker. Det finns korrespondens med sex amerikanska presidenter, kongressledamöter, federala och statliga regeringstjänstemän, premiärministrar och andra tjänstemän i utländska regeringar, presspersoner och ledare för liberala amerikanska grupper, liksom med väljare och beundrare i allmänheten.

Tidningarna har delats upp i åtta kronologiska delar, som var och en innehåller flera serier. Det finns också en obearbetad del:

Del II. 1946 juli - 1951 oktober

Del III. 1951 oktober - 1953 mars

Del IV. 1953 april - 1958 december

Del V. 1959 januari - 1960 december

Del VI. 1961 januari - 1963 juni

Del VII. 1963 juli - 1969 maj

Datumen för varje del är något godtyckliga, men definieras mer eller mindre av den specifika position Bowles innehade vid den tiden. Till exempel slutar del I när Bowles avgår som chef för Office of Economic Stabilization och del IV börjar när Bowles återvände från sin första turné som ambassadör i Indien. Delarna är tydligt avgränsade i kronologin som följer (s.4). Varje del innehåller korrespondens, tal, skrifter och tidningsurklipp och kan även innehålla memoranda och ämnesfiler. För var och en av dessa åtta delar finns ett separat register som innehåller en mer detaljerad beskrivning och en mapplista. Eftersom korrespondens med en viss individ kan förekomma i någon eller alla av de åtta delarna har ett kumulativt namnindex utarbetats för att underlätta lokaliseringen av den personens korrespondens.

Vissa typer av material överlappar de kronologiska indelningarna eller kräver särskild hantering. Av dessa skäl har en del IX skapats. Denna del, som innehåller fotografier och memorabilia personliga och ekonomiska papper informationsfiler och ljud- och videoband, kommer att visa sig värdefull även för forskaren som bara är intresserad av en viss tidsperiod. Den speciella samlingen muntliga historiaintervjuer finns i detta avsnitt, liksom Bowles personliga dagböcker. För en mer detaljerad beskrivning och mapplista, se registret för del IX.

Chester Bowles Papers i Yale University Library innehåller inte alla papper som någonsin passerat Bowles händer. Forskare kommer utan tvekan att tycka att National Archives är en användbar källa för dokumentation av Bowles roller i OPA -filer som fortfarande finns vid utrikesdepartementet kommer, när de är tillgängliga, att vara ovärderliga för hans år med Kennedy -administrationen, liksom för hans två perioder som ambassadör i Indien . På samma sätt har Connecticut State Library i Hartford viktiga kompletteringar till Yales innehav på Bowles tid som guvernör i Connecticut, det har också några register som rör Connecticut Office of Price Administration.

För relaterade papper i handskrifter och arkiv, se följande samlingar: Dorothy Stebbins Bowles Papers Philip Hall Coombs Papers James G. Rogers, Jr. Papers Commission on State Government Organization, 1949-1950, i Connecticut Miscellaneous Manuscripts Collection

Chester Bowles Papers blev egendom för handskrifter och arkiv, Yale University Library, i februari 1973 genom Bowles gåvainstrument. Fram till den tiden hade tidningarna varit i Bowles ägo i familjehemmet i Essex, Connecticut. Organiseringen av tidningarna slutfördes i december 1974, då de blev öppna för forskning. Endast ett begränsat antal objekt är för närvarande begränsade, och dessa nästan helt som känsligt personligt material. Jean Joyce, sedan länge associerad med Mr. Bowles, fungerade som konsult vid granskning av samlingen. Joyce förberedde också de muntliga historiaintervjuerna med Bowles kollegor, som ingår i hans papper. Eventuella ytterligare anslutningar av papper kommer att integreras i den befintliga organisationen.

DEL I - 1942 januari - 1946 15 juli

Chester Bowles började sin karriär inom public service som Connecticut State Tire Rationing Administrator (januari 1942 - mars 1942), Connecticut State Rationing Administrator och direktör för Connecticut State Office of Price Administration (mars 1942 - juli 1943). Efter att ha varit chef för Office of Price Administration (OPA) i Washington i flera månader blev han nationell OPA -administratör i oktober 1943. I början av 1946 utsågs han till chef för Office of Economic Stabilization (OES), februari 1946 - juli 1, 1946. Han avgick efter att kongressen, i juni 1946, inte klarade den starka lagstiftning som han ansåg vara nödvändig för att upprätthålla effektiva priskontroller.

Det framgångsrika genomförandet av andra världskriget på hemmafronten berodde i stor utsträckning på kontrollen av krigsinducerad inflation och rättvis ransonering av knappa varor. Fastställandet av pris- och ransoneringspolitiken tjänade som ett fokus för kontroverser och förhandlingar mellan flera krigskrigsbyråer, de äldre byråkratierna, de politiska företrädarna i kongressen och näringslivs-, gårds- och arbetsgrupper.

Chester Bowles Papers, del I, men bara ett fragment av korrespondensen som gick igenom Bowles händer, avslöjar mycket av historien om organisationen av den nationella OPA och lokala pris- och ransoneringsnämnder om försöken att säkra allmänhetens förståelse, acceptans och efterlevnad av kontrollerna av de byråkratiska och politiska konflikterna i Washington och av den återkommande frågan om att säkra kongressstöd.

Tidningarna är arrangerade i fyra serier: Korrespondensstal, uttalanden och skrifter OPA -rapporter och tryckt materialbokningskalendrar, urklipp, klippböcker.

DEL II - 15 juli - 1951 20 oktober

Under denna period deltog Bowles i en mängd olika offentliga aktiviteter. Även om han inte säkrade sitt partis nominering 1946, vann han 1948 guvernörskapet i ett lopp mot republikanen James C. Shannon. Han förlorade, snävt, sitt bud på 1950 om omval mot John D. Lodge. Hans korta mandatperiod som guvernör innehöll flera kampar för att genomföra sådana liberala reformer som omorganisationen av Connecticuts kaotiska statsregering, reform av statsbudgeten, initiering av ett statligt bostadsprogram och utökat statligt stöd till lokalsamhällen för att bygga nya skolor.

Under dessa år fördjupade sig Bowles i demokratisk politik på statlig och nationell nivå. Hans mest anmärkningsvärda utflykt till nationell politik kom 1948, när han lade sin röst till den så kallade & quotdump-Truman & quot-rörelsen av missnöjda demokrater. Samtidigt fördjupade Bowles frekventa tjänst för FN-som UNESCO-delegat, som konsult för generalsekreterare Trygve Lie och som internationell ordförande för FN: s barns överklagande-hans intresse för utrikesfrågor.

Under perioden 1946-1951 var Bowles en produktiv författare och talade ofta, bortsett från sin verksamhet som guvernör. Han deltog i organisationen och politiken för liberala grupper och var tidigt anhängare av amerikanerna för demokratisk handling. I september 1951 utsågs han av president Truman till ambassadör i Indien och Nepal och nådde Indien i oktober 1951 där del III börjar.

Tidningarna är organiserade i sex serier: General Correspondence Correspondence on Political utnämningar och jobbansökningsskrivningar, tal och nyhetsmeddelanden Specialämnen (i två underserier: 1948 och 1950 guvernörskampanjer och guvernörens informationsfiler) Biografiska profiler, listor och utnämningar och scheman Urklipp.

Se även del IX för fotografier eller memorabilia, band (ljud och video), skivor, filmer, etc. från denna period. Se också i Manuskript och arkiv, i Connecticut-samlingen, Commission on State Government Organization, 1949-1950. Connecticut State Library i Hartford innehåller några av Bowles papper under hans tid som guvernör materialet består mestadels av filer från statliga organ, styrelser och kommissioner. En bilaga i slutet av del II listar dessa filer. Det finns också register över några statliga myndigheter som härstammar från denna period i Connecticut State Library.

DEL III - 1951 20 oktober - 1953 22 mars

I september 1951 nominerades Bowles till ambassadör i Indien och Nepal av president Truman. Hans utnämning bekräftades trots starkt motstånd som leddes av senator Robert Taft. Detta register täcker hans mandatperiod i Indien från hans ankomst med sin familj i New Delhi den 20 oktober 1951 till hans avresa i mars 1953. Korrespondens om Bowles utnämning och bekräftelse, gratulationsbrev och viss korrespondens om rekrytering av personal till Indien kan finns i del II (1946-1951).

Som ambassadör var Bowles involverad inte bara i de traditionella diplomatiska funktionerna, utan med de många nya och växande aktiviteterna i USA: s mission i New Delhi. Under hans administration samordnades arbetet vid ambassaden, det tekniska samarbetet och USA: s informationstjänst.

Del III ger verkligen ett rikt rekord om det första stora amerikanska ekonomiska biståndsprogrammet för underutvecklade länder. Under Bowles första veckor som ambassadör blev Indien den första underutvecklade nationen som fick ett betydande bidrag eller lån under det nya programmet "Four Four". En teknisk samarbetsadministration (TCA) måste snabbt inrättas och bemannas. Ett högprioriterat jobb som skulle utföras var att planera den mest effektiva användningen av amerikanska biståndsmedel i samarbete med indiska tjänstemän som sedan förberedde Indiens eget första femåriga utvecklingsprogram.

Bowles djupa oro för den ekonomiska utvecklingen för Indien som grund för dess framtida ekonomiska och politiska stabilitet och hans nära samarbete med höga indiska tjänstemän i urvalet av betydande utvecklingsprogram som ska finansieras av amerikanskt bistånd är väl dokumenterade här. Hans korrespondens med amerikanska regering och indiska tjänstemän är omfattande om initiering och potential för dessa program, och om behovet av kongress- och offentligt stöd. Del 111 dokumenterar också Bowles tro på vikten av United States Information Service (USIS) och hans ansträngningar att utöka sin verksamhet och personal i Indien och Nepal.

Bowles informella och personliga inställning till diplomati fick stor publicitet och han uppmuntrade all missionspersonal, inklusive makar och barn, att lära sig indiska språk och seder. I sin bemanning av missionsposter sökte han skickliga officerare och ansträngde sig hårt för att rekrytera svarta officerare. Han trodde att närvaron av svarta anställda skulle hjälpa till att motverka det negativa intrycket asiater hade av USA: s behandling av sina rasminoriteter.

Bowles befann sig ibland i den avvikande positionen att bli pressad och attackerad både av konservativa i USA och av kommunister i Indien. Som liberal i McCarthy -tiden kritiserades Bowles hemma för att inte ta en starkare ställning mot kommunismen och för hans starka förespråkare för utländskt bistånd. I Indien å andra sidan blev han ofta attackerad av den kommunistiska pressen. En indisk kommunist, R.K. Karanjia, redaktör för Blitz, försökte till och med misskreditera honom genom att förfalska ett brev i Bowles namn.

Bowles höll nära kontakten med demokratisk politik hemma under de 1952 politiska konventionerna och kampanjerna. När Brien McMahon, den demokratiska senatorn från Connecticut, dog i juli 1952, var det press på Bowles att avgå från sin post och söka den demokratiska nomineringen till McMahons plats, eller åtminstone återvända hem och arbeta för partiet i kampanjen, Bowles, dock , trodde att hans arbete i Indien var viktigare.

Med Eisenhowers seger 1952 hoppades Bowles att amerikansk utrikespolitik inte skulle förändras drastiskt och att han skulle bli ombedd att fortsätta under den nya administrationen. Eisenhower utsåg dock George V. Allen att ersätta honom, och Bowles lämnade Indien i mars 1953. Bowles bok, Ambassador's Report, är en detaljerad redogörelse för hans period i Indien.

Tidningarna i del III ger en ganska komplett redogörelse för Bowles verksamhet under denna period. Mycket av materialet hänför sig till hans tjänst som ambassadör, till exempel hans filer med memorandor och rapporter från USA: s mission och hans korrespondens med indiska och amerikanska beslutsfattare om Indien och Asien. Dessutom finns det mycket om hans personliga och politiska intressen i USA till exempel om nationell och Connecticut demokratisk politik. Tidningarna är arrangerade i fyra serier:

I. USA och internationell korrespondens

2. US Government Correspondence

II. Indisk och Nepal korrespondens

2. USA: s mission i Indien och Nepal

III. Skrifter, tal, uttalanden och pressmeddelanden

Förutom materialet i denna del, se del IX för fotografier, memorabilia, ljudband, videoband och filmfilmer från denna period.

anteckning om korrespondensens organisation i del III

Arrangemanget av korrespondensfilerna i två serier följer det system som används på Bowles kontor i New Delhi, en serie för korrespondens utanför Indien och den andra för lokal (Indien och Nepal) korrespondens, vare sig med indiska eller amerikanska tjänstemän eller andra korrespondenter. I underserien U.S. Mission finns Bowles korrespondens, i form av memoranda och rapporter, med amerikanska tjänstemän i Indien och Nepal, om USIS och TCA, samt om ambassadfrågor.

Obs! Bowles kontorspersonal hade ett komplicerat arkiveringssystem som inkluderade placering av dubblettkopior av utgående brev i mer än en fil i ett försök att korsreferens efter ämne. Symbolerna & quotX & quot och & quotCR & quot indikerar sådana kopior. Ibland kan det finnas andra anteckningar, understrykningar, anteckningar och inringade siffror som förmodligen gjordes när man undersökte Bowles böcker och artiklar.

DEL IV - 1953 april - 1958 december

Bowles, efter att ha lämnat Indien i slutet av mars 1953, återvände till sitt hem i Essex, Connecticut, utan några specifika arbetsuppgifter. Ändå var åren mellan 1953 och 1958, som omfattas av del IV, särskilt aktiva. Bowles gav sig den omedelbara uppgiften att hjälpa den amerikanska allmänheten att förstå Asiens problem, och under månaderna efter hans återkomst arbetade han med Ambassador's Report, en personlig redogörelse för familjens upplevelser i och intryck av Indien och Asien. Dess framgång ledde till ett krav på att Bowles skulle föreläsa i otaliga framträdanden över hela landet.

Mellan 1955 och 1958 publicerade Bowles ytterligare fyra böcker: The New Dimensions of Peace (1955), Afrikas utmaning till Amerika (1956), American Politics in a Revolutionary World (1956) och Ideas, People and Peace (1958). Dessa böcker och hans resor till Afrika, Asien och Ryssland fick Bowles rykte som expert i utrikesfrågor, som förespråkare för utländska biståndsprogram (som han ansåg vara en "investering för fredens skull" och som en stark kritiker av Eisenhower -administrationens utrikespolitik.

Under denna period blev han alltmer engagerad i statlig och nationell politik. År 1954 pressades Bowles av vänner att ställa upp som guvernör i Connecticut mot mannen som besegrade honom 1950, John Lodge. John Bailey och andra ledare i Connecticut var övertygade om att Bowles kunde vinna, och Bowles själv var ivrig att springa. Samtidigt hade Adlai Stevenson uteslutit möjligheten att Bowles skulle gå med i hans administration, kanske i utrikesdepartementet, om Stevenson framgångsrikt ställde upp för presidentskapet 1956. Bowles bestämde sig för att ta sina chanser med Stevenson - ett beslut som han senare insåg hade varit ett misstag.

Från 1954 till valet 1956 arbetade Bowles aktivt för att hjälpa Stevenson, och del IV har betydande dokumentation om denna förening. Bowles var en del av ett informellt, liberalt hjärnförtroende för Stevenson, organiserat av Thomas Finletter. Gruppen, som inkluderade Arthur Schlesinger, Jr., och Averell Harriman, försökte mata Stevensons ställningspapper om viktiga frågor. Senare försökte Bowles få Douglas MacArthur, som var missnöjd med Eisenhower och hans administration, att rösta stöd för Stevenson. Under själva kampanjen skickade Bowles in memorandas om kampanjstrategi och utrikespolitik, skrev utkast till tal för Stevenson och gjorde en del kampanjer själv.

Med Stevensons nederlag vände Bowles återigen sina tankar till Connecticut -politik. Eftersom Connecticut redan hade en populär demokratisk guvernör, Abraham Ribicoff, beslutade Bowles att söka partnominering till senatsplatsen som innehades av William A. Purtell. Det var ett ödesdigert lopp. William Benton, Bowles tidigare affärspartner som han hade utsett för att fylla en ledig senatsplats 1949, ville också kandidera och kände att han hade en bättre chans än Bowles att vinna stöd av John Bailey och Ribicoff. I mitten av september dök en tredje kandidat upp när Thomas Dodd lämnade en formell förklaring om sin avsikt att söka nomineringen. Bowles betraktade Dodd, en konservativ demokrat och katolik, som den verkliga utmaningen som några bakom Dodd trodde att han kunde ha en bättre chans mot den katolska Purtell.

Bowles, på grundval av en privat Harris -undersökning som visade att Benton körde en dålig trea, var säker på att Benton inte utgjorde något hot och han förblev övertygad om att Bailey och Ribicoff inte kunde stödja Dodd. Ändå fann den demokratiska statskonventionen i juni nära medarbetare till Baileys kampanjer kraftfullt för Dodd och Bowles utsända kunde inte övertyga Benton att dra sig ur loppet.

Dodd vann nomineringen vid den första omröstningen. To bind up party wounds the Democratic leadership asked Bowles to run for the Second District Congressional seat. Though tempted to refuse, Bowles felt that he had been out of public life too long, and that he could use the Congressional seat as a platform to speak out on national issues. He launched an ambitious campaign devoting one week to each of the state senatorial districts. In a series of coffee parties, rallies, and weekly newspaper columns, he discussed the issues important to the district, unemployment, new industry, housing and government spending. The Bowles campaign was effective and Bowles was sent to Congress by a healthy majority. With Bowles' move to Washington, Part IV ends and Part V begins.

The papers of Part IV are divided into five series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements, and Writings Campaigns for Senatorial Nomination and for Congress Schedules, Itineraries, Appointment Books Newspaper Clippings.

PART V -- 1959 January - 1960 December

Bowles spent two years (1959-1960) in Washington not only as a Congressman representing Connecticut's Second District, but as an ever more active and involved supporter of John F. Kennedy for President. These are the years that are covered in Part V.

Congressman Bowles was especially fortunate in drawing a competent staff composed of Thomas L. Hughes, James C. Thomson, Jr., Patricia Durand, and Robert Downer into his Washington office. Bowles hoped for and received assignments to the House Foreign Affairs Committee, where he worked hard on foreign policy issues giving special attention to the Mutual Security Act. Among the issues of more direct concern to his District, Bowles sponsored the Area Redevelopment Act to alleviate conditions of unemployment and underemployment in economically depressed areas, and introduced legislation on housing and social security. He used the Congress as a podium to speak out on racial discrimination, national priorities, and inflation. He joined the Democratic Study Group, an organization of key liberal Democratic Congressmen.

In the summer of 1959 Bowles published a book, The Coming Political Breakthrough , in which he discussed the approaching election and the issues of critical importance to America's future. Bowles' strong opinions in the book, in Congress, and in numerous public appearances throughout the country brought him increasing prominence.

In October, 1959, John F. Kennedy met with Bowles to discuss the Senator's presidential candidacy and his desire to have Bowles serve as his foreign policy advisor. After consulting first with Adlai Stevenson and learning that Stevenson had no intention of seeking the presidential nomination a third time, Bowles accepted Kennedy's offer. His only condition was that he not be asked to campaign directly against Stevenson or Humphrey. Announcement of Bowles' appointment by Kennedy was made in February, 1960, roughly a month after Kennedy had declared his candidacy. Though Bowles' designation was foreign policy advisor, in fact his most important function was to help Kennedy win the support of the liberal wing of the party, which had so far withheld its endorsement of Kennedy.

Late in February, Bowles was asked by Paul Butler, head of the Democratic National Committee, to chair the Democratic platform committee for the coming presidential convention. After a series of preliminary regional hearings to allow citizens a chance to propose their ideas, Bowles was able to put together a specific, forthright platform, which included a strong civil rights plank, and push it through the committee with surprisingly little difficulty. In addition, he convinced the Democratic National Committee to forego the usual word-for-word reading of the platform in favor of a documentary film, geared to the T.V. audience, on the party's accomplishments, coupled with a reading of a shortened form of the platform.

Kennedy's nomination at the convention was a disappointment to several of Bowles' supporters who believed the "grass roots were rooting for Bowles," and had organized Bowles-for-President Clubs, chiefly in the Midwest and on the West Coast. Bowles had discouraged these groups, asserting that Kennedy was the strongest candidate.

With Kennedy nominated, Bowles had to decide about his own seat in the Congress. If Kennedy won, Bowles was virtually assured of an important role in the new administration. After debating the possibilities, including his prospects if Kennedy were defeated, Bowles withdrew from the Connecticut race.

In the months between the convention and the election, Bowles kept up a heavy schedule of campaign speeches for the national ticket. He also met with Secretary of State Christian Herter for the briefings on critical foreign policy situations, traditionally held for presidential candidates, and submitted speech material to the Kennedy campaign staff.

With Kennedy's election, Washington was flooded with rumors of possible Kennedy appointees. Bowles, along with Senator William J. Fulbright and Adlai Stevenson, were frequently mentioned as choices for the post of Secretary of State. Dean Rusk, however, was the eventual appointee. Bowles was selected as his Under Secretary for Political Affairs. With Bowles' move into the State Department at the end of 1960, Part V ends.

Part V is organized in four series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements and Writings Special Subjects Clippings.

PART VI -- 1961 January - 1963 June

Followers were disappointed when Kennedy chose Dean Rusk to be Secretary of State, but Bowles saw great potential for shaping a more forward-looking U.S. foreign policy in the offered post of Under Secretary for Political Affairs. He had no reason to doubt that he could work well with Rusk whom he had known as president of the Rockefeller Foundation while Bowles was a trustee.

Bowles and Rusk moved into the State Department at the end of December, 1960, which is when Part VI begins. Bowles felt the first requirement for an enlightened new foreign policy was to find high-level talent to head up the embassies abroad and State Department bureaus in Washington. Bowles succeeded in enlisting a distinguished group of people to serve in U.S. Missions, particularly in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Bowles was especially proud of securing, among others, Edwin O. Reischauer to serve in Japan and George Kennan to become ambassador to Yugoslavia. Bowles also helped promote an important redefinition of the role of a U.S. ambassador as overseer and coordinator of all U.S. government activities in his country of assignment.

Several crises occurred in the first months of the new administration: the Bay of Pigs, Laos, Soviet resumption of nuclear testing, and civil strife in the Dominican Republic. On the question of the Bay of Pigs, Bowles opposed the invasion and similarly opposed any retaliatory measures after its stunning failure. The press learned of Bowles' opposition, to the sharp annoyance of the Kennedys.

The Bowles-Rusk relationship never successfully worked out, and many detailed letters and memoranda from Bowles to Rusk (see State Department correspondence) bear witness to this deteriorating situation. By July 1961, rumors were circulating in Washington that Bowles would resign or be reassigned. Rusk did in fact offer Bowles an ambassadorial post in Latin America, an offer which Bowles declined. Kennedy, however, affirmed his desire to keep Bowles in the Administration and the rumors were temporarily quieted. Returning to "work as usual" he left for Africa, the Middle East and Asia to conduct regional conferences of U.S. Ambassadors in those areas, the first of a series of such conferences initiated by Bowles.

On the weekend of Thanksgiving, Bowles was suddenly called back from his home in Connecticut to Washington where Rusk informed him that the State Department was being reorganized. George Ball was to replace Bowles as Under Secretary and Bowles was asked to replace Averell Harriman as a roving ambassador. Bowles' new title would be President's Special Representative and Advisor on Asian, African, and Latin American Affairs. The announcement to the press emphasized Bowles' new office in the White House complex and the raise in salary and rank. But Bowles was dubious about the new position and his ability to get the President's attention.

During the next year Bowles traveled widely in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, meeting with the Shah of Iran, Nasser, Haile Selassie, Nehru, Ayub Khan, and Prince Sihanouk, among others. He inspected rural and community development projects and AID-sponsored programs, visited with Peace Corps volunteers, and saw the results of the African independence movement. Often he sent suggestions back to the President in detailed memoranda.

But, in December 1962, Bowles transmitted to Kennedy a letter of resignation. He felt strongly that his position had placed him outside the policy-making structure and he was exasperated with the lack of progress on or even high level attention to a positive policy geared to the developing nations. Kennedy asked Bowles to withhold his resignation until they could meet again. In early January, Kennedy met with Bowles with a new proposal John Kenneth Galbraith was about to leave as ambassador to India and Kennedy hoped Bowles would agree to replace him. Before accepting the offer, Bowles sent Kennedy a memo outlining his thoughts on policies toward India and its relations with the rest of Asia. With Kennedy's concurrence on these policies, he felt able to accept the offer.

With Bowles' departure for India in July of 1963, this part of the Papers ends and Part VII begins.

Part VI consists of three series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements and Writings Clippings.

Note: The researcher should also consult Part IX for additional materials related to this period, including photographs, diaries, and oral histories. The researcher might also be interested in a Yale senior essay (Spring, 1974) on Bowles during this period. See: Stephen Heintz, Frustrations at Foggy Bottom: Chester Bowles as Under Secretary of State, January - November 1961 , in Miscellaneous Mss., No. 170.

PART VII -- 1963 Jul - 1969 May

Bowles' second term as Ambassador to India began in July, 1963. This is the beginning date for Part VII. Bowles thought that he would be in India no more than two years, but his tour lasted until the spring of 1969. On arrival, the Bowles' moved into the recently-built ambassadorial residence, Roosevelt House, but found this highly stylized architecture ill-suited to their more informal mode of life. As during Bowles' first ambassadorship, they moved into the pleasant home-like bungalow at Ratendon Road. They used Roovevelt House as a place for official entertaining and hospitality functions for members of the Mission and the Indian people.

During his tenure in New Delhi, Bowles brought all programs of the U.S. Mission in India under his direction. He oversaw the functioning not only of the Embassy and consulates, but also of the U.S. Information Service, the Peace Corps, the Agency for International Development, and the military and intelligence missions. Bowles again made numerous attempts to get Senators and Congressmen to come to India to see firsthand what had been and what needed to be done in developing nations like India. When he first arrived, a top priority was negotiations between the U.S. and India to develop an agreement for substantial U.S. military assistance to India. Kennedy's death in November 1963, followed by that of Prime Minister Nehru only six months later, plus resistance in U.S. State and Defense Departments, delayed this agreement.

Learning to adjust to India's changing leadership was a special aspect of this period. Jawaharlal Nehru, aging and ill on Bowles' arrival, died in May 1964. Lal Bahadur Shastri, Nehru's successor, had been in office less than two years when he too died in 1966. His death brought yet another new Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, Nehru's daughter. Similarly the assassination of Kennedy and the subsequent efforts to ascertain the Johnson Administration's views and assure Johnson's positive stance on India were critical issues during Bowles' second ambassadorship.

In addition to continuing problems of economic development, India was confronted in this period with major problems which demanded immediate U.S. attention. In September 1965, Pakistan launched an attack in Kashmir using tanks and other war material supplied by the U.S. In 1965 and 1966 two successive droughts brought severe food shortages. The U.S., with its then abundant food surpluses, was able to help, but President Johnson attempted to use U.S., grain for political leverage. Despite repeated pleas by Bowles and U.S. friends of India, food shipments were delayed until there was a virtual "ship-to-mouth" schedule of deliveries.

Two other events brought diplomatic and Indo-U.S. relations problems to the U.S. Mission. One was the 1967 public exposure in the U.S. of C.I.A. funding of U.S. educational and scholarly activities in India and elsewhere. The second was the sudden appearance of Svetlana Allilueva, Joseph Stalin's daughter, at the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi in March 1967, where she sought U.S. assistance to remain in India or at least to prevent her return to the Soviet Union. Bowles' efforts to aid Svetlana prevent her return to the Soviet Union. Bowles' efforts to aid Svetlana ended with her eventual settlement in the U.S.

The papers for this period are an important source of information on the changing aspects of Indo-U.S. relations on Bowles' guidance of the U.S. Mission in New Delhi and also on the change of administration in the U.S. following the assassination of John Kennedy, the 1964 U.S. presidential election, the ever-widening war in Vietnam, Bowles' mission to Prince Sihanouk in Cambodia in 1968 to discuss North Vietnamese military violations of the Cambodia border, and the 1968 U.S. presidential election. The papers also record the onset of Bowles' affliction with Parkinson's disease and his efforts to control it.

The papers in this Part (VII) are smaller in quantity than one would expect for a six-year period. It is possible that a large quantity of correspondence and other documentation that passed through the Ambassador's hands was left in the Embassy files in New Delhi on Bowles' departure.

Part VII is arranged in four series: Correspondence Speeches, Statements and Writings Special Subjects including U.S. Mission in India, India, Other Countries and Areas and Clippings.

Part VIII is composed of papers dating from Bowles' return from India in the spring of 1969. While most of Bowles' public correspondence for 1969 and 1970 is included here, this part is incomplete and unprocessed and will remain so until Bowles' death when any additional papers can be processed with what is already in Manuscripts and Archives.

Although Bowles had left India and throughout most of 1969 and 1970 was almost totally occupied with preparing his autobiography Promises to Keep , he kept in close touch with India and U.S. foreign policy, particularly in regard to South and Southeast Asia. See especially his correspondence with President Nixon, Henry Kissinger, Secretary of State William Rogers, General William C. Westmoreland, Dean Rusk and Lucius Battle.

The papers in this section contain drafts, and correspondence and critiques of various stages of the manuscripts for the autobiography, Promises to Keep. Also included are drafts, correspondence and the final manuscript of Bowles' book, "Mission to India," published in India in 1974. Copies of both books, as published, have been incorporated with these files.

Part IX is arranged in five series as follows: Photographs and Memorabilia Informational Files Diaries and Oral Histories Personal and Financial Papers and Audio Tapes, Video Tapes, Movies, Phonograph Records.

Boxes 220-223, which contain constituent correspondence, are restricted until 2035 Jan 1.

The transcript of the oral history interview with Douglas Bennet, Jr. in Box 399b is closed until the deed of gift is secured from Bennet.

Box 408, which contains restricted personal and financial papers is closed until 2025 Jan 1.

Box 409, which contains audio tapes of oral history interviews with Bowles's associates, is not open to researchers.

Original audiotapes, videotapes, and motion picture films, as well as preservation and duplicating masters, may not be played. Researchers must consult use copies, or pay for the creation of a use copy, retained by the repository, if none exist.


INTERVIEW

ESSEX AT THE end of the narrow road that winds through a thick, dark forest, a rambling white house sits on a bluff overlooking Essex Harbor at the mouth of the Connecticut River. In the back of the 15room house, through a long living room where a dozing spaniel takes a momentarily interested peek at a visitor, there is a small study crammed with books on politics, history and economics.

Over the fireplace, which smells faintly of charred wood, are autographed pictures with “warmest regards” messages from the four Presidents who played dominant roles in the life of the man who has used the study as a hideaway during his 29 years of remarkable public service, a career of success and failure that has coincided with some of the finest and darkest hours in the nation's recent history.

The pictures are signed in variously expansive scrawls by Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson and addressed to Chester Bowles, a principal economic and foreign policy expert in the Administrations of the four Democratic Presidents.

The house, designed for the Bowleses by James Gamble Rogers, the architect of some Yale University buildings, is, as it has been for decades, a gathering place for local and state Democratic candidates. Several times a year, the Bowleses play host to the parties that are usually held around the swimming pool.

“They are marvellous events,” said Mrs. Bowles, “Chet doesn't have to speak, but his presence means a great deal.”

Mrs. Bowles, the former Dorothy Stebbins, who is known as “Steb,” said the family moved into the house in 1939, “a memorable year—the Germans in. vaded Poland and our son, Sam, was born.”

Mr. Bowles first gained attention as administrator of price controls in World War II and then as director of economic stabilization in the post‐war years. He went on to foreign‐policy assignments as Undersecretary of State and Ambassador to India. He represented the United States on diplomatic missions to Asia. In between those duties, he served as a Congressman from Connecticut and as its Governor.

Mr. Bowles is now 76 years old and suffering from Parkinson's Disease. The degenerative nerve disorder was diagnosed in 1969 when he was serving his second term as Ambassador to India, a post he retired from in 1969 to return to his home overlooking the river.

His voice is all but inaudible now and his arms and legs are stiff from the disease. But he still has a fervent desire to talk and to explain the moral and practical reasons for past national policies.

As he talked, Peggy Stanton, a young, barefoot registered nurse wearing denim skirt, knelt beside Mr. Bowles, who was seated in an overstuffed chair. She tried to catch his words in a makeshift, stethescope‐like tube.

During the latter part of his Government service, “Chet” Bowles was prominent advocate of a liberal foreign policy and later a victim of a policy shift when the United States expanded its military role in Vietnam and mounted the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.

In 1961, he was moved out of the second spot in the State Department under former Secretary of State Dean Rusk in what John Kenneth Galbraith, the economist and historian, said in retrospect signified the decline of liberal in fluence on foreign policy in the Kennedy Administration.

“If the Department couldn't abide Bowles, we weren't likely to accomplish much,” Mr. Galbraith, also a liberal, wrote in a 1971 review of Mr. Bowles's autobiography, “Promises to Keep.”

In his review, Mr. Galbraith, whose own career coincided with that of Mr. Bowles as head of the Office of Price Administration and Ambassador to India, wrote that “the truth is that Bowles's liberal friends failed him in moments of crisis.” The economist included himself in that criticism.

Mr. Bowles said that he agreed with Mr. Galbraith's assessment.

He said that the definitive account of the United States role in Indochina has not yet been written, but he characterized that policy as one created by intractable men who settled on an anti‐Communist stand as the safest means of preserving their jobs.

“It will be up to the younger historians to write the story of that time and the relationships of the men who made policy,” he said.

And if he had his autobiography to write over, it would contain some harsher comments about Dean Rusk, among others, he said.

When asked if he had ultimately been disappointed by President Kennedy, who chose Mr. Bowles as his chief for eign policy adviser before he selected Dean Rusk as Secretary of State, Mr. Bowles looked away. It was clearly not subject that could be dealt with in a few questions and answers.

Mr. Bowles repeatedly returned to what he regards as one of his major accomplishments, his role as head of the Office of Price Administration, regarded as one of the biggest bureaucratic headaches in Washington during World War II.

When he was summoned by President Roosevelt to head the agency, Mr. Bowles said that he was stunned by the size of the organization, but equally impressed by “the extraordinary sense of unity” among officials and the American people.

After he took over, he said, a Gallup Poll indicated that 85 percent of the people approved of the control measures, and Mr. Bowles gained a reputation as one of the first consumer advocates.

But when the war ended and he moved to the Office of. Economic Stability, he said he was unable to continue price controls for another year.

Faced with opposition from apowerful coalition of business and union leaders, Congress largely overrode his recommendations, he said.

Six years ago, Mr. and Mrs. Bowles gave 99 acres of their 110‐acre grounds to a nature conservancy. The house itself bustles. The five dogs are in and out, the youngest child of an Indian couple who came back from India with the couple is stringing rope from two trees and there are the nurses, a secretary and others.

Mr. Bowles spends much of his day reading, “trying to keep up,” he said. On a small table next to his chair, were copies of several news magazines along with the Hindustan Times and India Abroad as well as local newspapers.

When asked how she spent her days, Mr. Bowles answered laughingly that her response would involve a lengthy job description.

She travels to visit friends, she said, and manages the household that includes frequent visits from five children and 14 grandchildren.


BOWLES, Chester Bliss ("Chet")

(b. 5 April 1901 in Springfield, Massachusetts d. 25 May 1986 in Essex, Connecticut), liberal Democratic politician who served as under-secretary of state, Kennedy's special representative and adviser for Asian, African, and Latin-American affairs, and U.S. ambassador to India during the 1960s.

Bowles was born into a prominent New England family in Springfield, Massachusetts, the third child and second son of Charles Allen Bowles, a paper manufacturer, and Nellie Harris Bowles, a homemaker. He was educated at two Connecticut private schools, Choate and Roxbury, and graduated from Yale University's Sheffield Scientific School with a B.S. in 1924. In 1925 he married a Springfield debutante, Julia Fisk, with whom he had two children, Chester, Jr., and Barbara. From 1925 Bowles worked in New York City in advertising, and in 1929 with William Benton he established the agency of Benton and Bowles, serving as its chief executive from 1936 to 1941. Bowles's first marriage ended in 1932, and in 1934 he remarried, to Dorothy ("Steb") Stebbins, a Smith College graduate in social work who was often credited with awakening his social conscience, and with whom he had three children, Cynthia, Sally, and Sam. During World War II Bowles joined the government, heading the federal Office of Price Administration (1943–1946) he later became a Democratic governor of Connecticut (1949–1951), ambassador to India and Nepal (1951–1953), and a congressional representative (1959–1961).

In 1960 Bowles supported John F. Kennedy's presidential campaign, hoping in return to become secretary of state. Kennedy shared Bowles's interest in gaining third world loyalties but not his New Dealer's preference for economic aid over military coercion, nor the low priority Bowles accorded relations with the Soviet Union and Europe and his lack of interest in nuclear policy. Six feet four, lanky in youth, hulking in middle age, Bowles lacked the sense of humor and social sophistication needed to survive in the highly polished, intellectually rarefied, and sometimes cruelly competitive Kennedy administration circles—the milieu Jacqueline Kennedy, the president's widow, subsequently termed "Camelot." He accepted the lesser position of undersecretary of state but lacked rapport with Secretary Dean Rusk and swiftly became known as a poor administrator—in one colleague's words, "a pleasant idealistic fellow, naive and wordy." Bowles's opposition to the bungled March 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and, worse still, widely circulated press reports of his dissent soon alienated the influential attorney general, the president's brother Robert.

A staunchly anticolonial Wilsonian, Bowles urged American support for emerging nations in Africa, even when such states adopted cold war nonalignment. In 1961 he deplored European backing for the secessionist regime of Moise Tshombe in the Katanga province in the former Belgian Congo, and he welcomed its collapse when assailed by United Nations forces. From the early 1950s Bowles urged that the United States move toward improving relations with China, with the ultimate objective of recognizing both China and Taiwan. As undersecretary he unsuccessfully suggested the relaxation of trade and travel controls against China and the extension of food aid, ideas Kennedy and Rusk quickly squelched. Bowles opposed the growing U.S. troop commitment to Laos and Vietnam, arguing that this might provoke Chinese intervention—almost certainly exaggerating, as he had since the 1950s, the potential Chinese military threat. He recommended instead that all Indochina be neutralized under international guarantees, a suggestion probably unworkable given North Vietnamese determination to destabilize the South.

Fired in November 1961, Bowles took the vague, essentially honorific post of special presidential representative to Latin America, Africa, and Asia. He continued to advocate a "Peace Charter for Southeast Asia," effectively his earlier neutralization scheme, and massive economic aid for that region. He resigned in January 1963, but later that year Kennedy, recognizing Bowles's genuine talent for handling third world countries, appointed him ambassador to India, a post he held until 1969.

Bowles hoped to repeat the triumphs of his first ambassadorial assignment, when his efforts eventually facilitated substantial long-run increases in American economic aid to India, but found his second mission more difficult. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, with whom his relationship had been close, was ill when Bowles arrived, and he died in 1964. Nehru's successor, Lal Bahadur Shastri, served less than two years, a period dominated by the 1965 Indo-Pakistan War, before dying in office. Nehru's daughter and Shastri's successor, Indira Gandhi, was cool toward Bowles, greatly resenting his unsolicited avuncular advice. Bowles strongly admired President Lyndon Johnson's domestic civil rights stance and War on Poverty programs, but unlike Kennedy, who appreciated Bowles's empathy with developing countries, Johnson and many of his officials found his identification with India irritating and often ignored him. Even so, Bowles's rejection of the ambassadorial mansion in favor of a modest bungalow, his obvious distaste for diplomatic socializing, and the warm respect he and his wife, who frequently wore saris, showed ordinary Indians were long remembered in his host country.

Bowles always deplored the 1954 U.S. military alliance with India's neighbor Pakistan, and before Kennedy's assassination in November 1963 submitted to him a scheme whereby the United States would give both nations limited military assistance, provided they observed ceilings on defense spending and sought no additional weaponry from other countries. When India and Pakistan went to war in 1965, both employing American weapons, the United States initially halted all further military aid to both nations and later drastically cut all military programs. More fruitfully, Bowles backed major agricultural reforms that brought about the "Green Revolution," which ultimately made India self-sufficient in food grains. Johnson's policy of deliberately doling out food aid in small installments, which appalled Bowles, may well have been one incentive impelling India to implement such measures.

Bowles had only limited success in winning Indian support for American policies in Vietnam, one major reason for Johnson's disenchantment with Indira Gandhi. Privately Bowles continued to advocate a major economic aid program for Southeast Asia and to support a halt to bombing and the opening of peace negotiations publicly he remained silent as the Johnson administration ignored his dissenting advice. In January 1968 Bowles represented the United States in talks with Prince Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia, his objectives being to reach an understanding with Cambodia over American pursuit of Viet Cong forces, limit U.S. military incursions into Cambodia, and so preserve the country's neutrality and integrity. Though initially successful, these talks failed to prevent a subsequent full-scale American invasion of Cambodia. Bowles also helped orchestrate the 1967 defection from India to the United States of Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of the Russian dictator Josef Stalin.

Retiring in 1969, Bowles published somewhat anodyne memoirs. In 1971, the year they were published, he welcomed the separation of Bangladesh from Pakistan. In 1986 Bowles died of Parkinson's disease, which had been diagnosed in 1965, and was buried in Essex, Connecticut. His considerable abilities notwithstanding, Bowles's liberal, noninterventionist, and non-Europeanist outlook, decidedly at odds with the prevailing post-1945 foreign policy consensus, and his fondness for lofty, idealistic, and rhetorical generalities precluded his wielding greater influence within the administrations he served.

Bowles left his personal papers to Yale University Library. Many of his official papers are among the records of the Department of State in the National Archives II, College Park, Maryland the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, Boston, Massachusetts and the Lyndon B. Johnson Library, Boston, Massachusetts. Some documents from his official career have been published in the series Foreign Relations of the United States. In retirement Bowles published his rather unrevealing memoirs, Promises to Keep: My Years in Public Life 1941–1969 (1971). Although written by a diplomatic protégé and associate, his only biography, Howard B. Schaffer's Chester Bowles: New Dealer in the Cold War (1993), is a balanced and fair assessment of his public career. Brief accounts of Bowles's service under Kennedy and Johnson are given in Nelson Lichtenstein, ed., Political Profiles: The Kennedy Years (1976), and Political Profiles: The Johnson Years (1976). Obituaries are in the New York Times och Washington Post (both 26 May 1986). Bowles recorded oral histories for Columbia University, the Kennedy Presidential Library, the Johnson Presidential Library, and the Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Library, New Delhi, India.


Bowles Collection - Highlights


BOX 381, FOLDER 65: Ephemera, including absentee voting information Parliament of India Diplomatic Gallery Card and DNC and USIS cards.


BOX 375, FOLDER 38: Photographs of a Sikh wedding.


BOX 375, FOLDER 43: Photographs of Kalimpong.


BOX 375, FOLDER 43: Photograph of diya vendor, before Divali.


Chester Bowles

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When Harry Truman named him ambassador to India in 1951, Chester Bowles was already a prominent figure in American public life a onetime advertising mogul, wartime administrator, governor of Connecticut and yet his past hardly presaged the turn his path would take in Asia. Over the next two decades, at home and abroad, Bowles would become one of the leading liberal lights in American foreign policy, a New Dealer destined to be at odds with the stiffening cold war conservatism of his time. His biography is also the story of America finding its place in a changing world, a story of remarkable relevance to our own post-cold war era.

Howard Schaffer, a former ambassador and seasoned Foreign Service officer, worked closely with Bowles in India and Washington and is able to offer a colorful firsthand portrayal of the man, as well as an insider&rsquos view of American foreign policy in the making. Bowles&rsquos indefatigable energy, inspired idealism, and humanitarian instincts leave their mark on these pages&mdashas do his stubbornness, his cultural blinders, and his failure to master the game of bureaucratic politics. We see him in his sometimes exhilarating and ultimately frustrating struggle to influence the leaders and policymakers of his day&mdashas twice ambassador to India, Democratic party foreign policy spokesman, congressman from Connecticut, foreign policy adviser to John F. Kennedy, undersecretary to Dean Rusk at the State Department, and President Kennedy&rsquos special adviser on Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Drawing on a wealth of documents and interviews with some of the nation&rsquos top foreign policy makers in the post&ndashWorld War II years, Schaffer shows us Bowles in his tireless attempt to advance an alternative approach to international relations during those decades, an approach defined less in military than in economic terms, focused less on the struggle for power with the Soviet Union in Europe than on the contest with China over the fate of Third World countries.

&ldquoOnly the historians can determine who was right and who was wrong,&rdquo Dean Rusk once said of Bowles&rsquos ideas and convictions&mdashand today history itself is writing the last word.

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From Our Blog

To celebrate Pride Month, we are highlighting excerpts from books that explore the lives and experiences of the LGBT+ community. This second excerpt comes from How To Be Gay, a finalist for a Lambda Literary Award, in which David M. Halperin, a pioneer of LGBTQ studies, dares to suggest that gayness is a way of being that gay men must learn from one another to become who they are. & hellip


Chester B. Bowles

Chester Bowles (Class of 1924) was born in Springfield, Massachusetts and attended Choate before going to Yale. In 1924, as a senior, he was captain of the golf team that won the intercollegiate championship, although he was not one of the four players whose scores counted toward the win. In the opening match of that season, he had been paired with his teammate, Dexter Cummings, the 1923 individual intercollegiate champion, and they lost to a team from the Westchester Biltmore Country Club in Rye, New York. In 1923 Bowles had lost his match in the Apawamis Invitational. He did not play in the intercollegiate team competition at the end of the season, but he did compete in the individual championship, losing in the second round. Why was he elected team captain? It may well be that the qualities that made Bowles successful in advertising, politics, and diplomacy were evident even then to his constituents.

Bowles wrote later that “as a college senior, in 1924, I determined to spend my life in government,” observing that he was one of a few in class for whom a public career held any interest. First he went to New York and got a job as a $25 per week copywriter in an advertising agency. During the Great Depression of 1929 he started his own advertising firm with another Yale graduate, William Benton. It was highly successful, but Bowles was not satisfied by monetary rewards alone. The events of December 7, 1941 provided him the opportunity he had been seeking.

Because of an ear problem Bowles was rejected when he tried to enlist in the Navy. He accepted a position as director of the Office of Price Administration in Connecticut. In 1943, President Roosevelt appointed him general manager of the Federal Price Administration. He was the Director of Economic Stability, when he ran unsuccessfully for governor of Connecticut in 1946. He became governor in 1948. He was named US Ambassador to India in 1951 and again in 1961. Between those posts he served in the House of Representatives from Connecticut’s second district. Bowles wrote seven books setting forth his philosophy of domestic and foreign policy.


Titta på videon: Честер Небро - ChilaRap 2014 (Maj 2022).


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